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The 10 kWth IFPEN‐TOTAL CLC plant is composed of three bubbling fluidized bed reactors (1 Fuel reactor and 2 Air reactors). The reactors are interconnected through three identical pneumatic solid transport lines composed of an L‐valve at bottom of each reactor, a dilute phase pneumatic conveying line (riser), and a cyclone connected to a loop‐seal leading the particles to the next reactor. This system is successfully operating since 2009 using different oxygen carriers, and various feeds. The principal features of this pilot can be listed as:

  • Use of L‐valves permits a very good control of solids flow rate in a wide range of 30 – 120 kg/hr. This allows adjusting the flow of oxygen and heat between the reactors. Measurement of pressure drop in the developed zone of the pneumatic conveying lines results in measurement of solid flow rate during steady state operations.
  • The special configuration of L‐valves in series permits a precise control of the height of the fluidized beds (both in Fuel and Air reactors) from 0.05 m to 0.9 m. Consequently, the residence time of the gas and solid phase can be controlled separately through control of solid flow rate and height of the bed for the solid phase and gas velocity for the gas phase.
  • A loop‐seal is used at the solid inlet of each reactor to guarantee the gas tightness of the relational zones. This increases the capture efficiency of the system by avoiding leakage of the captured CO2 and increases the purity of the CO2 stream by avoiding dilution of the flue gas.
  • Thanks to high operation flexibility of the current system, both steady state and transitional continuous tests can be carried out in this pilot plant using different oxygen carriers as well as various feeds (methane, syngas, coal, and petcoke).
  • Separate analysers are installed at the gas exit of each reactor permitting analysis of O2, H2, H2O, CO2, CH4, NO, and SOx. The precision of the analysis are guaranteed by a continuous control of material balance for each element in the system.
  • A solid sampling system permits to monitor evolution of particles during long term operations.
  • Use of a Carbon Stripper in the system allows optional control and monitoring of the evolution of the size of the oxygen carriers during continuous tests.